gave | Sunday, April 25, 2021 – 16:51 | Last Updated: 25 04 2021 – 16:51
Stating that colon cancer can occur without any symptoms, Uzm. Dr. Ebru Karcı said, “Different symptoms can be seen in colon cancer depending on the location of the tumor. Left colon tumors can cause bleeding, change in stool habits, constipation, diarrhea attacks, or intestinal obstruction. Right colon tumors can often give symptoms with anemia, mass and weight loss. Especially individuals in the risk group should not hinder their screening programs, ”he said.
YOUR FAMILY HISTORY DETERMINES YOUR CANCER RISK
DIFFERENT SYMPTOMS OF TUMORS ON THE RIGHT OR LEFT
Pointing out that different symptoms are seen in colon cancer depending on the location of the tumor, Dr. Karcı said, “Colon cancer can occur without any symptoms. Left colon tumors can cause bleeding, change in stool habits, constipation, diarrhea attacks, or intestinal obstruction. Right colon tumors can often give symptoms with anemia, mass and weight loss. As with any cancer, there is a stage first in order to determine the treatment method and to learn the course of the disease. Stage 0 is the earliest stage of cancer. Cancer tissue is traced inside the innermost layer of the colon wall, the mucosa. Endoscopic removal is sufficient; there is no need for additional treatment. In stage 1, tumor cells reached the submucosa layer under the mucosa from the layers of the colon wall or further advanced to the muscle layer. However, no tumor was observed in any lymph node. In stage 2, cancer cells have retained all layers of the colon walls and can spread to surrounding tissues. But cancer is not observed in any lymph node, ”he said.
TREATMENT METHODS AVAILABLE BY STAGE
Dr. Karcı gave the following information about the 3rd and 4th stages: “The most important feature of Stage 3 is that the cancer tissue is observed in the lymph nodes around the colon or in the tissues close to the lymph nodes. Stage 4 is the last stage of colon cancer. At this stage, cancer has spread to other organs besides the colon and lymph nodes. Although colon cancers can spread to every organ, they most frequently metastasize to the liver and lungs. Treatments that can be done according to the stages of the disease are systemic, such as surgery, chemotherapy, targeted therapies, immunotherapy; Local treatments such as radiotherapy, hyperthermia intraperitoneal chemotherapy, radiofrequency ablation, transarterial chemoembolization, transarterial radioembolization, hepatic arterial infusion. Treatment in early stage colon cancer is surgery and reinforcing chemotherapy, which we call adjuvant, depending on the stage or the risk of recurrence. In advanced stage tumors, combination chemotherapy with double or triple drugs is recommended. At this stage, targeted drugs and immunotherapies can be used alone or in combination with chemotherapy by evaluating the location of the disease, genetic and pathological characteristics of the tumor. Targeted therapies are used in conjunction with other cancer treatments to cause cancer cell death. Some targeted therapies prevent the growth signal from reaching the cancer cell, while others reduce the feeding of the cancer cell through the blood. These treatments are decided by looking at the mutation analysis in the patient’s tumor tissue.